A learner’s sense of control in a given situation. A learner with agency feels capable of influencing their own learning and acting to accomplish their goals.
(Samoan) whānau or extended family
Circumstances of learning
Love, compassion, empathy, affection
Hopes and goals for learning and the future held by whānau, learners, and kaiako.
Ā tōna wā
In their own time.
The freedom to make choices and have responsibility. Autonomous teaching and learning approaches are those that value children's rights, aspirations, interests, and ambitions.
In the context of Te Whāriki, bicultural particularly refers to Māori and non-Māori, as enshrined in Te Tiriti o Waitangi, New Zealand's founding document.
The arrangement of words and phrases to form increasingly complex sentences.
Theories that critique and challenge dominant world views with the aim of creating a fairer, more inclusive, and equitable society.
The cultural contexts and communities learners and kaiako participate in that influence their understanding about learning and identity.
Teaching responses that enable learners to connect new learning to their own prior knowledge, identity, and cultural experiences.
The process of deciding and implementing learning, assessment, and evaluation priorities, using Te Whāriki as a foundation.
Digitally mediated contexts
Experiences and activities that involve the use of various digital technologies.
The range of unique characteristics within any group, including their strengths, skills, gender, ethnicity, languages, cultural backgrounds, and abilities or disabilities.
Knowledge associated with a particular subject or topic. For example, science, mathematics, or art.
The principle of ensuring that each learner has what they need to progress and succeed. This often means providing specialised, additional resources for learners or groups of learners that otherwise would be disadvantaged or excluded.
Funds of knowledge
The knowledge and expertise that learners and their whānau bring to the early learning service because of their roles within their whānau, communities, and culture.
Tribe or subtribe
Intellectual, the mind
Humility, gentleness, peacefulness
To teach with thoughtfulness and purpose, with the goal of facilitating meaningful learning and development. Intentional teachers offer a combination of teacher-initiated, child-initiated, and peer-mediated learning experiences.
The process in which kaiako systematically find out what is working or not working in their service in order to determine what improvements need to be made.
An ongoing, cyclical process that underpins effective learning as kaiako inquire into the impact of their teaching on their learner's learning.
Extended kinship group, tribe, people
Teacher(s), educators, and other adults, including parents in parent-led services who have a responsibility for the care and education of children in an early childhood education setting. In settings where parents have collective responsibility for the curriculum, it is understood that kaiako will also be parents and whānau. This term conveys the reciprocal nature of teaching and learning, which is valued in Te Whāriki.
Trustee, custodian, guardian, protector
Guardianship, environmental stewardship
Prayer, ritual chant, incantation
A Māori approach that assumes the normalcy of being Māori – language, customs, knowledge, principles, ideology, agenda.
Five capabilities for living and lifelong learning outlined in The New Zealand Curriculum, the curriculum for teaching and learning in English-medium schools. The capabilities are: thinking, using language symbols and texts, managing self, relating to others, and participating and contributing.
Māori-medium early childhood service with a focus on retaining and revitalising language and culture.
Conversation, chat, story, news, discussion
How a child views themselves as a learner. This evolves over time and can have a positive or negative effect on learning.
Characteristics and attitudes that influence a learner's responses in learning situations. Dispositions can either facilitate or hinder learning.
The progression of children's learning over time, which, while not being perfectly linear, follows a path towards greater complexity over time.
The local weaving of Te Whāriki including the principles, strands, goals, and learning outcomes that reflect the aspirations, priorities, and valued learning of an early learning service's people and community.
The power of being, authority, prestige, spiritual power, authority, status, and control
Uniqueness and spiritual connectedness
Show respect, generosity, hospitality, and care for others.
The process of showing respect, generosity, hospitality, care for others.
The complex of buildings and land associated with a pan-tribal group, whānau, hapū, or iwi.
Vital essence, life principle, essential quality
A learner's understanding of, and ability to manage, how they think and learn.
Grandchild; in the context of Te Whariki, mokopuna expresses intergenerational connectedness
The various shapes and words used to represent numbers.
Earth, Earth mother
The means by which kaiako influence, support, and provide guidance for children’s learning and development. Pedagogy is supported by theoretical knowledge, understanding of Te Whāriki, values, and practice.
The skills, knowledge, and attitudes that give learners confidence and motivation to be active.
An approach to curriculum design where learners are encouraged to explore, experiment, discover, and solve problems in imaginative and playful ways.
Teaching strategies that anticipate possibilities, outcomes, and issues rather than waiting for something to happen and then reacting. Intentional kaiako will use proactive strategies.
The intentional actions and interactions kaiako use to stimulate learner interest, ideas, and participation.
The use of evidence, critical inquiry, and problem-solving to inform changes to practice aimed at improvement.
Teaching strategies that prioritise a sense of security and emotional wellbeing.
Chiefly authority, right to exercise authority, sovereignty, autonomy, leadership, control, independence.
The ability to have appropriate control over emotional responses and showing resilience in response to disappointment or conflict.
The influence of relationships and context on learning and development.
Teaching and learning that gives attention to both the content and the processes.
People of the land (literal), descendants of the first people to settle Aotearoa New Zealand, indigenous people (used of Māori), person or people with customary authority over an area that may include land and sea. This authority is held by first settlement of an area or by succeeding to an area through active occupation and negotiation with the first peoples.
A highly prized object or possession; includes socially or culturally valued resources, both tangible and intangible.
Sacred, set apart, prohibited.
Te Aho Matua
Te Aho Matua o ngā Kura Kaupapa Māori, the document that sets out the principles by which kura kaupapa Māori operate.
Te ao Māori
The Māori world.
Te ao mārama
The world of life and light, this world, Earth.
Te ira tangata
The human essence.
The realm of potential being, The Void.
Te Marautanga o Aotearoa
The Pacific Ocean.
The realm of darkness, the underworld, night.
Te reo (Māori)
The Māori language.
Te taha wairua
The spiritual dimension.
Te tino uaratanga
Māori ways of doing, including practices, customs, and rituals.
Senior and junior siblings, used where an older or more knowledgeable child supports the learning of a younger or less knowledgeable child.
Educational seminar, institution or forum; (act of wānanga) shared deliberations, discussions, shared learning.
Lineage, genealogy, ancestry.
Extended family, multigenerational group of relatives or group of people who work together on and for a common cause.
Kinship, sense of whānau connection – a relationship through shared experiences and working together that provides people with a sense of belonging.
Heart, mind, seat of emotions.
Ideas and understandings that guide all human interactions. Children's working theories evolve and become more sophisticated through learning processes.